SMART HELMET with full Coding: A Complete Life Saving Gadget for Two Wheeler Enthusiasts



A smart helmet is a special idea which makes motorcycle driving safer than before. The main aim of the smart helmet is to prevent the biker from starting his bike until and unless he actually wears the helmet. It incorporates the concepts of GSM and GPS to track a location of the accident and to provide the victim prompt medical attention. The project also carries the concept of a TILT sensor which senses the tilt of the bike above a permissible limit (>60◦) and informs the family and friends of the biker about the accident by the concepts of GSM and GPS


In today’s era, especially in the young generation, the craze of motorbikes is really remarkable. The middle-class families prefer to buy motorbikes rather than four wheelers, because of their low prices. As the bikes in our country are increasing, the road mishaps are also increasing day by day, due to which many deaths occur, most of which are caused due to most common negligence of not wearing a helmet. According to a survey of India, there are around 698 accidents occurring due to bike crashes per year. If accidents are one issue, lack of proper treatment is another reason for deaths. In India out of the 698 deaths occurring annually, nearly half of the people die due to lack of proper treatment in proper time. The many reasons for this are late arrival of an ambulance, no person at the place of accident to give information to the ambulance or parents, etc.

This is a situation we observe in our day to day life; a thought of finding some solution to resolve this problem comes up with this idea of giving information about the accident as soon as possible because of TIME………!!!!!!!!! matters a lot. If everything is done in time, at least, we can save half the lives that are lost due to bike accidents.


The idea of our work is that a biker must wear a helmet in order to start up his bike, otherwise the bike won’t start. It also gives information about the location, in case, the biker meets an accident. The location of the accident is given by a GSM module to the cell phones of family and friends, through an SMS. Sending the SMS regarding the accident alone cannot help the rider until and unless the location of the accident is also known. So as to trace out the location of an accident, we use a GPS module. Thus an SMS containing the information about the accident as well as the location (latitude and longitude) of the area is sent to the family and friends using a microcontroller.


Review of Literature:

This is a report about a smart helmet which makes motor cycle driving safer than before. The main aim of this project is that it makes sure that the biker can’t start the bike without wearing the helmet. A similar proposed work that has been put forward earlier which is based on the principle of pressure sensing that is wearing a helmet creates a pressure on the helmet and a data signal is passed to the transmitter which redirects the bike ignition control to turn on. Moreover the transmitter and the receiver modules used are IR based. However, both the technologies have certain drawbacks:


  • Pressure can be created inside the helmet by putting any dummy material inside it. Thus the rider instead of wearing a helmet can create the required pressure by putting any dummy material inside the helmet. Hence the basic purpose of starting the bike by wearing the helmet can be easily bypassed.
  • The IR technology is of short range.
  • IR modules work on the principle of line of sight.
  • IR based devices cannot move around while the transmission is in progress.

Keeping all these drawbacks in mind, we have a proposed system which overcomes all these problems. Instead of pressure sensor a unique technology of SKIN SURFACE POTENTIAL has been used which enforces the biker to wear the helmet for starting as well as riding the bike and cannot bypass it by any means. Moreover this system is RF based which not only has a long range but also eliminates the problem of need of line of sight. Moreover RF based transmitter and receiver can be moved while the data transmission is in progress.

The Smart Helmet:

Most helmet innovations today focus on a few things like adding an MP3 player or wireless phone or even a flash light on top of it. But none of these features give guarantee that they are meant to be used for bike rider’s safety. THE SMART HELMET, on the other hand is based on one single idea i.e. to make it somehow mandatory to wear it while riding a motorbike by the help of some technology. This helmet, in practice, acts as a second key to the vehicle and in turn increases security. Moreover as the rider can neither start nor run the vehicle without wearing a helmet, it ensures that the rider has to wear the helmet all the times while riding a vehicle.

THE SMART HELMET not only enforces the biker to wear a helmet while riding the bike but also incorporates the technologies of informing the family of the biker if, in case, he meets an accident. Along with the information, the exact location of the area where the accident has taken place is also sent through an SMS.

 THE SMART HELMET also incorporates the accident sensing device, whenever an accident takes place, this device gets activated and with the help of modern technologies the accident information and exact location carrying SMS will be sent to the family members.



Smart helmet is an innovative concept which shuns out the possibility of starting a bike without wearing the helmet. The helmet acts as the second key to a biker. Besides, it also incorporates the advanced technologies of accident sensing which on one hand informs the friends and family of the biker if, in case, he meets an accident and on the other hand enables prompt medical attention to the victim.

The smart helmet consists of five main modules:


Transmitter Module:

A transmitter module is carried by the helmet. It consists of RF transmitter (434 MHz), encoder IC (HT12E) and TIP 122 as the main components.

The transmitter module works only when there is conduction by SKIN SURFACE POTENTIAL between the facial muscles. This conduction is made by two connections; one originating from the positive terminal of a 12 volt battery which is made to touch one side of the facial muscle through a conductive fabric and the other connection is taken from the other side of the facial muscle using conductive fabric and is fed to the base of TIP122

When a biker places the helmet on his head, conduction takes place through surface skin potential. A small amount of current goes to a base of TIP 122 which shifts its operating point from cutoff mode to saturation mode and pulls down its collector voltage (VCC).the output is taken from the emitter of TIP 122 and is fed to the data pin D4(PIN 10) of the encoder IC. The encoder encodes the data and sends this bit stream to the transmitter from PIN NO 17 (Dout).this transmitter transmits this data as an RF signal using ASK.

Receiver Module:

The transmitted signal sent by the transmitter is decoded and the valid data transmission is checked out, which drives the relay and in turn the ignition of the bike. As such the bike gets started.

Receiver module consists of following main components.

  • Decoder IC
  • Relay Module

HT12D IC decodes the encoded data received by the RF receiver. For valid transmission, the decoder IC generates a bit stream which drives the relay.PIN 10 of HT12D IC is connected to the relay module by means of relay driver. The relay driver acts as an Amplifier, which is transmitter (BC458).

The relay module is in turn connected to the ignition module of the bike. Wearing the helmet causes valid data transmission due to which the relay turns on and enables the biker to start his bike.

GSM Module:

The GSM module used in this project is SIM900. It has been fitted in the bike section and its main function is to send an SMS to the programmed numbers at the time of accidents. This module is interfaced with three processing module through Arduino Uno which acts as a prototyping platform. Out of the four pin (Vcc, Tx, Rx and GND) in the two pins viz. Tx and Rx are connected to the Arduino at the pin no. 16 and 17 respectively. The pins 16 and 17 of the Arduino are made to act as special function pins as Rx pin and Tx pin respectively by software serial library setup as the Arduino has only one Rx and one Tx pin of its own.

Whenever biker meets an accident, the accident sensing device gets activated and the processing module processes the data sent by the sensor and activates the GSM module to send an accident carrying information SMS to pre-programmed numbers.

Out of the remaining two pins, one is connected to the Vcc and the other is grounded.

 GPS Module:

In this project, GPS Module 600L (CIROCOMM) is used and is placed along with the GSM module on a single PCB and is fitted in the bike section. The GPS module extracts the geographical location in terms of coordinates (latitudes and longitudes) at the time of accident and is sent as an SMS along with the accident informing message to the pre-programmed numbers. The GPS module is interfaced with the processing modules (ATMEGA 328) through Arduino, an open-source prototyping platform. The Tx pin and Rx pin of the said module is connected to the pin no. 4and 5 of the Arduino respectively. These pins act as special functioning pins (Rx and Tx respectively) by software serial library setup. This module gets a supply of Vcc at one pin and the other pin (out of the four pins) is grounded. At the time of the accident, the processing module operates upon the data sent by accident sensing module and redirects the GPS module to extract the exact location of the place of accident and with the help of GSM module which carries the subscriber’s identity module (SIM), the exact location information (in terms of coordinates) is sent to the pre-programmed numbers.

Accident Sensing Module:

Accident sensing module used in this project is simply a tilt sensor, an electromechanical type. The tilt sensor measures the tilt of a bike, whenever the bike tilts above the pre-determined, it gets activated and redirects the other modules about the crash. The pre-determined value of the tilt sensor in this project is 600, means an accident.

A tilt sensor consists of two poles or terminals and a ball suspended between the two poles inside a cylindrical cavity. Whenever this tilt sensor gets tilted above 600, the ball shorts one of the poles and a signal is passed to the processing module to operate upon. One of the poles of the tilt sensor has been interfaced with the Arduino at pin no. 6 in this project and the other pole gets Vcc supply. When there is no tilt (00), a low signal is always passed to pin no. 6 of the Arduino. Tilt above 600 shorts the Vcc supplied pole, a high signal is passed to the processing module indicating an accident. The processing module is programmed in such a way that whenever a high signal is passed by tilt sensor, it must redirect the other modules (GPS and GSM) and activate them so that they carry out their respective functions.

The new concepts upon which the basic principle of ignition control revolves around are Darlington pair (TIP122) and the Conductive fabric described below:


In electronics, the Darlington transistor (Darlington pair) is a compound structure consisting of two bipolar transistors (either integrated or separated devices) connected in such a way that the current amplified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one. The configuration given a much higher current gain than each transistor taken separately and, in case of integrated devices, can take less space than two individual transistors because they can use a shared collector, integrated Darlington pairs come packaged singly in transistor-like-packages or as an array of devices(usually 8) in an integrated circuit.

The Darlington configuration was invented by bell laboratories engineer Sidney Darlington in 1953.asimilar configuration but with transistors of opposite type (1 NPN and 1 PNP) is a Sziklai pair, sometimes called the “complementary Darlington”.


A Darlington pair behaves like a single transistor with a high current gain (approximately the product of the gains of the two transistors). In fact, integrated devices have three leads (B,C and E), broadly equivalent of those of a standard transistor. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe voltages and that is where our main idea works on. The skin surface potential of a head allows a transmitter to transmit the signal to the receiver end. The Darlington pair is a most important component in this module as its function of sensitivity to respond through a skin at safe voltages allows to complete the main aim in this project.

A typical modern device has a current gain of thousand or more, so that only a small base current is needed to make the pair switch on.

Base circuit:

The basic circuit of Darlington pair or super alpha pair is formed by taking the emitter of the input transistor and connecting it such that its emitter drives the base of the second and then connecting both collectors together. Saturation voltage of the Darlington pair is about 0.7 V. The overall base emitter voltage required to return the Darlington pair ON is twice the Saturation Voltage i.e. 1.4V.The Darlington pair is the renowned method for obtaining very high level of current gain, using just two transistors. 

Conducting Fabric:

This is a conductive knit fabric for use in e-textiles. It is similar in feel to a nylon ripstop material. It is highly conductive with a surface resistivity of less than 0.02 ohm per square.


  • It is conductive.
  • Great for use with the lilypad.
  • Surface Resistance < 0.02 ohms per square
  • Shielding effectiveness : average 85 db from 30 MHz to 10 GHz
  • Abrasion Resistance: 500,000 Cycles
  • Temperature Range : -300C to 900C
  • Total thickness :0.003 (0.1mm) nominal
  • Number of splices: 1/100M nominal.
  • Weight: 77 g/square meter
  • Dimensions: 12 *13” (304.8 * 330.2mm)


  • Outside skin for EMI/RFI fabric over foam gaskets
  • Shielding materials for laminated flat I/O shielding panels
  • EMI/RFI cable shielding
  • Base material for EMI/RFI garments
  • Wall covering for RF shielding

Smart Helmet using Arduino with full Coding

Figure 1: Block Diagram

Smart Helmet using Arduino with full Coding




Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. It’s an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a  development environment for writing software for the board.

Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors and controlling a variety of lights, motors and other physical outputs. Arduino projects can be standalone, or they can communicate with software running on your computer (e.g.Flash, Processing, MaxMSP).the boards can be assembled by hands or purchased pre-assembled; the open source IDE can be downloaded for free.

The arduino programming language is an implementation of Wiring, a similar physical computing platform which is based on Processing multimedia programming environment.

Smart Helmet using Arduino with full Coding:

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

#include <TinyGPS.h>

#define echoPin 7

#define trigPin 8

const int x_pin = A0;  // Analog input pin that the potentiometer is attached to

const int y_pin = A1;// Analog output pin that the LED is attached to

const int z_pin = A2;

const int buzzer_pin = 13;

const int tilt_pin = 2;

#define echoPin 7

#define trigPin 8



/* This sample code demonstrates the normal use of a TinyGPS object.

   It requires the use of SoftwareSerial, and assumes that you have a

   4800-baud serial GPS device hooked up on pins 4(rx) and 3(tx).



TinyGPS gps;

SoftwareSerial ss(3,4);

SoftwareSerial cell(10, 11);

void setup()


pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT);

pinMode(echoPin, INPUT);





Serial.print(“SMART HELMET & ACCIDENT PREVENTION SYSTEM “); Serial.println(TinyGPS::library_version());

Serial.println(“Dept. of E$IT”);


pinMode(tilt_pin, INPUT);


void loop()


boolean tilt = digitalRead(tilt_pin);

int   x_direction  = analogRead(x_pin);

int   y_direction  = analogRead(y_pin);

int   z_direction  = analogRead(z_pin);

// map it to the range of the analog out:

x_direction = map( x_direction, 0, 1023, 0, 255);

y_direction = map( y_direction, 0, 1023, 0, 255);

z_direction = map( z_direction, 0, 1023, 0, 255);


int distance,duration;

digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);


digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);

duration=pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);









/* This sample code demonstrates the normal use of a TinyGPS object.

   It requires the use of SoftwareSerial, and assumes that you have a

   4800-baud serial GPS device hooked up on pins 4(rx) and 3(tx).


int sensor = digitalRead(tilt_pin);

float flat, flon;

bool newData = false;

unsigned long chars;

unsigned short sentences, failed;


/* For one second we parse GPS data and report some key values*/


for (unsigned long start = millis(); millis() – start < 1000;)


while (ss.available())


char c =;

// Serial.write(c); // uncomment this line if you want to see the GPS data flowing

if (gps.encode(c)) // Did a new valid sentence come in?

newData = true;



if (newData)


unsigned long age;

gps.f_get_position(&flat, &flon, &age);




Serial.print(flat == TinyGPS::GPS_INVALID_F_ANGLE ? 0.0 : flat, 6);

Serial.print(” LON=”);

Serial.print(flon == TinyGPS::GPS_INVALID_F_ANGLE ? 0.0 : flon, 6);

Serial.print(” SAT=”);

Serial.print(gps.satellites() == TinyGPS::GPS_INVALID_SATELLITES ? 0 : gps.satellites());

Serial.print(” PREC=”);

Serial.println(gps.hdop() == TinyGPS::GPS_INVALID_HDOP ? 0 : gps.hdop());*/


if(tilt == false && x_direction > 100 && distance <10|| tilt == false && z_direction < 90 && distance <10)


//Serial.print(“sending sms…….”);


cell.println(“AT+CMGF=1”);    //Sets the GSM Module in Text Mode

delay(500);  // Delay of 1000 milli seconds or 1 second

cell.println(“AT+CMGS=\”x\”\r”); // Replace x with mobile number


cell.println(“LATITUDES =”);// The SMS text you want to send

cell.println(flat ==TinyGPS::GPS_INVALID_F_ANGLE ? 0.0 : flat, 6);

cell.println(“LONGITUDES =”);// The SMS text you want to send

cell.println(flon == TinyGPS::GPS_INVALID_F_ANGLE ? 0.0 : flon, 6);


cell.println((char)26);// ASCII code of CTRL+Z

digitalWrite(buzzer_pin, HIGH);



if (tilt == false && x_direction > 100 || tilt == false && z_direction < 90)


digitalWrite(buzzer_pin, HIGH);


else if (distance < 10)


digitalWrite(buzzer_pin, HIGH);




digitalWrite(buzzer_pin, LOW);




The propose topology can be further extended by adding the following features

  1. An alcohol sensor can be installed to ensure that the biker won’t be able to start the bike if he is drunk.
  2. Over speed limiting devices can be installed which would restrict the biker from over speeding. In case the biker over speeds, his registration number would be sent to the traffic regulatory authorities for necessary action.
  3. To increase the sensitivity of the skin potential, a mind wave kit can be employed to read the brain waves for attention and meditation

If you are facing any problem regarding this project feel free to relay your comments below, we are here to help you. For more information contact and subscribe us.


Published by: Ecstatic Trends



Ecstatic Trends

Ecstatic Trends is India's best online portals for the latest trends, tricks, art & culture to connect with the world. To improve this soapbox every day, we do everything possible to raise the voice of young people and implement new ideas.

2 thoughts on “SMART HELMET with full Coding: A Complete Life Saving Gadget for Two Wheeler Enthusiasts

  • July 27, 2018 at 5:41 pm

    Pls I want circuit diagram

  • October 12, 2018 at 2:34 pm

    Flowchart explanation?


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