Introduction of Railway Accident Prevention System
The Indian Railways has the world’s fourth largest railway network in the world, after that of the United States, Russia and China. The railways traverse the length and breadth of the country and carry over 20 million passengers and 2 million tons of weight daily. It is one of the world’s largest commercial or utility employers, with more than 1.6 million employees. About 15000 trains work every day. Unfortunately, there have been many accidents involved in the railways. The railway safety is a major issue of concern. Continuously railway rules are being violated. The increased growth in the railway sector has resulted in an increase in the train traffic density across the world. This has resulted in an increase in the number of accidents involving trains. In this project, Railway Accident Prevention System we have included several features which prevent train accidents. It includes the detection of two trains when they are on the same track, obstacle detection, fire detection, gas/smoke detection, and track continuity.
Railway Accident Prevention System makes use of ultrasonic sensors for the detection of any obstacle on the track that may derail the train from the track, fire sensors for the detection of fire in engine and other bogies, gas sensors for the detection of smoke resulting from the fire at initial stage or any other toxic gas for example methane or carbon monoxide which are harmful for humans. The major part of Railway Accident Prevention System includes the monitoring of the status of the track whether the trains are on different tracks or on the same track. In case the trains are on the same track the buzzer will beep, LCD will show the status that the trains are on same track and the engine of the train will stop automatically so that the accident is prevented before the trains collide head-on. The other important feature that we have included is that if there will be any obstacle on the track that may derail the train from the track, the ultrasonic sensors mounted in front of train will send signal to microcontroller (which in our case is Arduino) which in turn sends a command to stop the engine, thus preventing the accident. Now if there is any fire or smoke in the engine portion or in any of the bogies due to short circuits or other fire incidents, the buzzer will beep and the message “Fire detected” will be displayed on the LCD and thus stopping the train so that the passengers could be rescued well in time.
The project of Railway Accident Prevention System makes use of Arduino Nano which is an open-source platform used for building electronics projects. Our project is fully concentrating on avoiding the train collisions and other accidents, thus ensures passenger safety through embedded system integrated with the smart track, ultrasonic sensors, fire sensor, gas sensor. The previous railway systems were using the infrared sensors and anti-collision devices to prevent head-on collisions. However, this system is still facing some problems due to consideration of some factors such as cost-effectiveness, despite it is increasing the amount spent on implementation of the devices. Currently, to some extent, the Konkan Railways has put efforts to provide train safety through ZigBee and infrared based sensor concepts. Even though it has some disadvantages such as limited range of signal covered and difficulty in their implementation in the real world it is still being used. This work is concentrated on predicting the measure cause of railway accidents that is a collision on the same track. Our project Railway Accident Prevention System has overcome these limitations by using the concept smart track which replaced infrared sensors and collision devices. The limitation of short range in ZigBee communication has also been overcome by our project, as it uses the RF module to send and receive the status of the trains which has a large range and is unaffected by the drastic weather conditions. Moreover, we have used encoder and decoder to encrypt the train status signal to be sent to trains whether they are on different tracks or on the same track. The encryption has been done so that the data send is safe.
General Block Diagram Description
The project Railway Accident prevention System monitors the track status continuously and then transmits the same data digitally with the help of RF transmitter module to the RF receivers mounted on different trains. The digital data received by RF receiver is sent to the processing module which decides whether the trains on the different tracks or on the same track. At the same time, the status of trains is displayed on the respective LCD`s of the trains. If the two trains are on the same track the processing module makes the buzzer to beep for alarming and the LCD`s show that the trains are on the same track, immediately the processing module makes the decision of stopping the train engines so that the two trains on the same track stop thus ensuring security to the passengers. The RF433Mhz module used in our project has a range of 100 meters but in practical case the RF module will be replaced by BV250RFL FHSS Transceiver with a range of 7 to 10 Km.
The project also uses ultrasonic sensors mounted in front of the trains to detect the obstacles on the track that may derail the trains. If any obstacle is detected on the track, the buzzer will beep and LCD will show that obstacle is on the track and the engine of the train will be stopped so that the collision is avoided. The ultrasonic sensors HC-SR04 which has a range of 2 to 400 cm will be replaced in a practical case by Dx1000 which has a range of 400 meters.
In case there is any fire in the engine portion or in any bogie due to short circuit or any other incident the fire sensor will detect it and the gas sensor will detect the smoke resulting from the fire. The alarm will buzz in the train and the LCD will show the fire alert and gas alert. The train will be stopped so that the passengers will be rescued well in time, thus ensuring safety to the passengers.
Transmitter side (Base Station)
Receiver Station 1 (Mounted on Train 1)
Receiver Station 2 (Mounted on Train 2)
I have not discussed here about Battery, AC supply, Regulator, Arduino they are too easy you will find these topics easily on internet.
The term RF module can be applied to many different types, shapes and sizes of small electronic sub assembly circuit board. It can also be applied to modules across a huge variety of functionality and capability. RF modules typically incorporate a printed circuit board, transmit or receive circuit, antenna, and a serial interface for communication to the host processor.
A wireless radio frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver can be easily made using HT12D Decoder, HT12E Encoder and ASK RF Module. Wireless transmission can be done by using 433Mhz or 315MHz ASK RF Transmitter and Receiver modules. In these modules digital data is represented by different amplitudes of the carrier wave, hence this modulation is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). Radio Frequency (RF) transmission is more strong and reliable than Infrared (IR) transmission due to following reasons:
- Radio Frequency signals can travel longer distances than Infrared.
- The only line of sight communication is possible through Infrared while radio frequency signals can be transmitted even when there is an obstacle.
- Infrared signals will get interfered by other IR sources but signals on one frequency band in RF will not be interfered by other frequency RF signals.
Most standard types are:
- Transmitter module
- Receiver module
- Transceiver module
An RF transmitter module is a small PCB sub-assembly capable of transmitting a radio wave and modulating that wave to carry data. Transmitter modules are usually implemented alongside a micro controller which will provide data to the module which can be transmitted. RF transmitters are usually subject to regulatory requirements which dictate the maximum allowable transmitter power output, harmonics, and band edge requirements.
HT12E Encoder IC will convert the 4 bit parallel data given to pins D0 – D3 to serial data and will be available at DOUT. This output serial data is given to ASK RF Transmitter. Address inputs A0 – A7 can be used to provide data security and can be connected to GND (Logic ZERO) or left open (Logic ONE). Status of these Address pins should match with a status of address pins in the receiver for the transmission of the data. Data will be transmitted only when the Transmit Enable pin (TE) is LOW. A 1.1MΩ resistor will provide the necessary external resistance for the operation of the internal oscillator of HT12E.
An RF receiver module receives the modulated RF signal and demodulates it. There are two types of RF receiver modules: superheterodyne receivers and super-regenerative receivers. Super-regenerative modules are usually low cost and low power designs using a series of amplifiers to extract modulated data from a carrier wave. Super heterodyne receivers have a performance advantage over super-regenerative; they offer increased accuracy and stability over a large voltage and temperature range. This stability comes from a fixed crystal design which in the past tended to mean a comparatively more expensive product.
ASK RF Receiver receives the data transmitted using ASK RF Transmitter. HT12D decoder will convert the received serial data to 4 bit parallel data D0 – D3. The status of these address pins A0-A7 should match with status of address pin in the HT12E at the transmitter for the transmission of data. The LED connected to the above circuit glows when valid data transmission occurs from transmitter to receiver. 51KΩ resistor will provide the necessary resistance required for the internal oscillator of the HT12D.
RF Transmitter Circuit
RF Transmitter & Receiver
In many projects we use RF modules for transmit and receive the data because it has high volume of applications than IR. RF signals travel in the transmitter and receiver even when there is an obstruction. It operates at a specific frequency of 433MHz.
Communication over Radio Frequency has many advantages as it doesn’t require a line of sight connection between the transmitter and receiver as in case of Infrared communication.
The range of RF communication is very high when compared to IR communication. In this project, a wireless transmitter and receiver system using RF modules (RF Transmitter and RF Receiver) is implemented.
An RF Transmitter and Receiver pair is used for wireless communication. The wireless data transmission is done using 433 MHz Radio Frequency signals that are modulated using Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation technique.
In order to implement the wireless transmitter and receiver, we use an encoder IC HT12E and a decoder IC HT12D.
RF Receiver Circuit
Table of Contents
- Circuit Diagram
- Component Description
The circuit is divided into transmitter and receiver sections. The transmitter section consists of an RF Transmitter, HT12E encoder IC and four LEDs.
The receiver section consists of RF Receiver, HT12D Decoder IC. An extra LED is connected to VT (Valid Transmission) pin of the decoder IC. This is used to indicate a successful transmission of data.
A 750 KΩ resistor is connected between the oscillator terminals of encoder IC. This is to enable the oscillator.
Similarly, a 33 KΩ resistor is connected between the oscillator pins of decoder IC.
RF Transmitter and Receiver Modules: The wireless communication between transmitter and receiver sections is achieved using RF modules. A 433 MHz transmitter and receiver pair are used in this project.
It is an encoder IC that converts the 4-bit parallel data from the 4 data pins into serial data in order to transmit over RF link using a transmitter and drives the LEDs accordingly.
It is a decoder IC that converts the serial data received by the RF Receiver into 4-bit parallel data.
The aim is to implement a wireless transmitter and receiver using RF modules. It uses radio signals to transmit the data. The working is as follows.
The transmitter and receiver sections are placed at a distance of at least 20 meters. In order to show the working of wireless communication between transmitter and receiver, 4 LEDs at transmitter section are controlled by the tack status.
The HT12E encoder IC converts the 4-bit data from the 4 data pins that are connected to LEDs into serial data. This serial data is sent to RF transmitter. The RF transmitter transmits this serial data using radio signals. At the receiver side, the RF receiver receives the serial data. This serial data is sent to HT12D decoder IC which converts into 4 bit parallel data.
- As RF Modules doesn’t require line of sight communication, the transmitter and receiver can be isolated over a distance and data can be transmitted successfully.
- The wireless transmitter and receiver can be used in car door and garage door controllers.
- They can also be used in home automation systems.
- RF transceiver module is used in wireless communication. The main application of this transceiver is to make information in the form of data/ voice / video to be transmitted over the wireless medium.
- The main intention of this device is to alter IF frequency to RF frequency and vice versa.
HT12E Encoder IC
The HT12E Encoder ICs are series of CMOS LSIs for Remote Control System applications. These ICs are paired with each other. For proper orientation, a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of address and data format should be selected. The Decoder receives the serial address and data from its corresponding encoder, transmitted by a carrier using an RF transmission medium and gives output to the output pins after processing the data.
HT12E is an encoder integrated circuit of 212 series of encoders. They are paired with 212 series of decoders for use in remote control system applications. It is mainly used in interfacing RF and infrared circuits. The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have the same number of addresses and data format.
Simply, HT12E converts the parallel input into serial output. It encodes 12 bit parallel data into serial for transmission through an RF transmitter. These 12 bits are divided into 8 address bits and 4 data bits.
HT12E has a transmission enable pin which is active low. When a trigger signal is received on TE pin, the programmed address/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium. HT12E begins a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable. This cycle is repeated as long as TE is kept low. As soon as TE returns to high, the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops.
HT12D is a decoder integrated circuit that belongs to 212 series of decoders. This series of decoders are mainly used for remote control system applications, like a burglar alarm, car door controller, security system etc. It is mainly provided to interface RF and infrared circuits. They are paired with 212 series of encoders. The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have the same number of address and data format.
In simple terms, HT12D converts the serial input to parallel outputs. It decodes the serial addresses and data received by, an RF receiver, into parallel data and sends them to output data pins. The serial input data is compared with the local addresses three times continuously. The input data code is decoded when no error or unmatched code is found. A valid transmission is indicated by a high signal at VT pin.
HT12D is capable of decoding 12 bits, of which 8 are address bits and 4 are data bits. The data on 4-bit latch type output pins remain unchanged until new is received.
After this I”ll like to discuss about LCD, L2C module, sensors which we have used in this project like Ultrasonic sensor, Gas sensor, Flame sensor and Buzzer module but it’s something which can be easily found on internet.
Working of the Project
In this project, the two pair of tracks represent the represent the four data lines (D0, D1, D2, D3). The wheel of the train is connected to +5V power supply. When the wheel rests on the track, it transfers the +5V to one side of the track, thus making the data pin high. Only one side of the tracks will be high when the trains are on the different tracks. This makes any two alternate LEDs on the transmitter side to glow, representing the trains are on the different tracks. If the two trains are on the same track, the two sides of the same track will be high. This makes the two consecutive LEDs on the transmitter side to glow, representing the trains are on the same track and in opposite direction. However if the two trains are on the same track and also in the same direction, only one side of the track will be high and the two alternate LEDs will glow at the transmitter side. This data is to be sent by the transmitter to the receiver for the further actions.
The circuit diagram of the project is divided into two parts:
- Transmitter circuit diagram
- Receiver circuit diagram
Transmitter Circuit Diagram
Transmitter Circuit Diagram
HT12E Encoder IC will convert the 4 bit parallel data given to pins D0 – D3 to serial data and will be available at DOUT. This output serial data is given to ASK RF Transmitter. Address inputs A0 – A7 can be used to provide data security and can be connected to GND (Logic ZERO) or left open (Logic ONE). Status of these Address pins should match with status of address pins in the receiver for the transmission of the data. Data will be transmitted only when the Transmit Enable pin (TE) is LOW. 1.1MΩ resistor will provide the necessary external resistance for the operation of the internal oscillator of HT12E.
Receiver circuit diagram
Receiver circuit diagram
An RF receiver module receives the modulated RF signal, and demodulates it. ASK RF Receiver receives the data transmitted using ASK RF Transmitter. HT12D decoder will convert the received serial data to 4 bit parallel data D0 – D3. The status of these address pins A0-A7 should match with status of address pin in the HT12E at the transmitter for the transmission of data. The serial input data is compared with the local addresses three times continuously. The input data code is decoded when no error or unmatched code are found. The LED connected to the above circuit glows when valid data transmission occurs from transmitter to receiver. 51KΩ resistor will provide the necessary resistance required for the internal oscillator of the HT12D. On receiving the serial data the processor module decides whether the train engine is to be kept working or to be stopped. When the trains are on the different tracks, the engine keeps normally working. If the trains are on the same track and in same direction, the engine still keeps working normally. If the trains are on the same track but in opposite direction, an alarm will be triggered, LCD will show that the train are on the same track and the train engines will stop automatically.
The other features included in this project are obstacle detection, fire and gas detection. The ultrasonic sensor has been mounted in front of each train to detect the obstacle. If there is any obstacle on the track which may derail the train, the reflected echo sound signal will be at the echo pin of the ultrasonic sensor. The echo pin which is connected to the D7 pin of Arduino will be high, representing an obstacle on the track, thus alarm is triggered, LCD shows obstacle detected and the train engine will be stopped. Similarly if there is any fire in the engine portion or in any bogie, the flame sensor will detect it and A1 pin of the Arduino will be high, representing fire. The alarm will be triggered, LCD will show the fire alert and the engine will be stopped. Same is the case with gas sensor, if there is an initial smoke resulting from fire or any toxic gas like propane, carbon monoxide, the A0 pin of the Arduino will be high if the level of these gases will be above the threshold, alarm will be triggered, LCD will show the message that gas level has exceeded and the engine will be stopped.Conclusion and Future Scope
The Railway Accident Prevention System offers an effective way to reduce the occurrence of railway accidents. It consists of an Arduino microcontroller that will monitor all other devices connected. This project uses RF technology for communication purpose. It has been estimated that, a train travelling at a speed of 140 Km/hr can be stopped at 400 meters under normal conditions. The wireless ultrasonic sensors are used for sensing the obstacles present in the railway track. The flame sensor is used to detect the fire and gas sensor has been used to sense any toxic gas if present in the bogies. This system can contribute a lot of benefit to the railway management. This project can improve the way of preventing railway accidents and this technology has the early sensing of the accidents and thereby it can avoid accidents and ensures safety. Through this innovative project we demonstrate that it is possible to improve the overall safety of the railway system in India.
The project Railway Accident Prevention System till now covers accident prevention when the two trains are on same track, presence of heavy object on the track that may derail the train, fire in the engine or any of the bogies of the train, any toxic gases like propane and iso-butane that may cause severe damage. In future, it can be extended by using the GPS module to know the exact location of the accident. We can also use GSM module to inform about the same in the nearest control system via an SMS. In future, the RF module that we have used in the present project can be replaced by using the Internet of Things (IOT).
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Published by: Ecstatic Trends